变化给这三栽小心思坏掉你的生质量

本期原文选自The Economist 2016-9-10的Leaders板块Art of the
lie,释义来自牛津高阶七版、剑桥高阶学习词典英汉双解第3本子、朗文双解词典、柯林斯词典等资源。如果你吗当攻读The
Economist,欢迎订阅我之文集The
Economist,一起念书交流。

图发简书APP

Art of the lie

Consider how far Donald Trump is estranged from【1】 fact. He
inhabits a fantastical realm where Barack Obama’s birth certificate
was faked, the president founded Islamic State (IS), the Clintons are
killers and the father of a rival was with Lee Harvey Oswald before he
shot John F. Kennedy.

文/韩大爷的杂货铺

【1】estranged from
与(某事)脱离,与(某人)疏远;另外estranged还有分居的意;名词也estrangement

小情绪随时都发,它基本上到了驱动我们习惯。

图片 1

俺们五东就学会了刷牙,六春秋时以放学回家的中途摔个跟头,膝盖擦破层皮,到小后还见面产生长辈过来消毒冲洗,是的,我们一直都分外关心好的身体状况,却甚少强调自己之心理健康。

Mr Trump is the leading exponent【2】 of “post-truth”
politics【3】
—a reliance on assertions that “feel true” but have no
basis in fact. His brazenness is not punished, but taken as evidence
of his willingness to stand up to【4】 elite power. And he is
not alone. Members of Poland’s government assert that a previous
president, who died in a plane crash, was assassinated by Russia.
Turkish politicians claim the perpetrators【5】 of the recent
bungled【6】 coup were acting on orders issued by the CIA. The
successful campaign for Britain to leave the European Union warned of
the hordes of immigrants that would result from Turkey’s imminent
accession to【7】 the union.

然,一个丁的心理健康程度和外个人世界之方方面面紧密相关,如果我们直接针对协调之组成部分小情绪漠不关注,以为只是是一代矫情,那么漫长你见面发觉,生活遭事事不满意,处处起题目。

【2】exponent 能手,鼓吹者

今日,带大家探听与剖析3种影响我们生活质量的略心思,希望招大家只顾,并就此科学的计去对待她,好好生活,好好爱自己。

图片 2

小情绪之一:莫名的孤独感

【3】“post-truth” politics
后精神政治,根据wikepedia的定义,是借助当政治理论中重要性因情感,脱离政治细节,重复某些论点,却忽视事实驳斥的政文化;该词来源于David
Roberts在2010年Grist专栏中的篇章Post-truth
politics,在2016年美国辖选举与2016年英国脱欧公投中流行起来

若是否生这样的经验:常常觉得温馨生孤独,真正理解自己心里想法的人头无几独,想使倾诉却还要摸不交称心如意的疏浚渠道,觉得没人能够确实懂自己,哪怕是身边的同伴。

【4】stand up to Sb 抵抗、反对某人

如若发如此的体会,不用紧张,首先,这充分正规。我们在于即时星球上之各级一个总人口,都是独设完全的性命个体,彼此来自不同之家,不同的成材环境,不同之育背景,不同的部落文化,不同的差事,等等等等,这通都招了我们怀念要找到百分百心灵契合之挚友知己都是不容许的。一个人口还怎么了解您,也无能为力彻底地融入你的社会风气,完全地站于你的角度达考虑问题,哪怕是公的养父母。

图片 3

然,我们每个人的设定都是“生来孤独”,但若是顾的凡,千万不要拿孤独设置也在之常态,长期吃这种冰冷的孤独感笼罩,你身体所接受之侵蚀与抽烟吸雾霾差不多,调查研究结果为表明,一个漫长孤立无援的人早死的几乎统领比其他人如果大有14%,孤独很非常,但为真来贬损。

【5】perpetrator 犯罪者,作恶者,行凶者;相应动词用法perpetrate sth
(against/upon/on sb),相应名词perpetration

何以稀释孤独感,我叫大家的建议充分老套,却为蛮实惠,那就是是您时不时听见的衷告:多看。

图片 4

免理解您是否生这么的共鸣,当你每日为活之零碎繁杂纠缠,偶尔用起一本书来读一下,立马就会起雷同栽增加的感到,就接近空荡荡的胸臆被什么东西填充满,当然,那个东西不是硅胶。

图片 5

举凡啊为?是如出一辙种共同感受的拿走与共通观念的共鸣。

【6】bungle 搞砸,失败

当你认为您的想法深各色,很为难给方圆人知,当您道您正遭遇奇异之泥沼,别人好麻烦掌握您的盲目与迷惘,读书,就可知帮你一个万分忙,因为,在漫长而广的历史时空线及,总有那一个口居然是同样丛人,他们经历过您更之成人阶段,你想在的事物他们多上呢以思念,并且颇幸运的凡,他们以有更跟设法记录下来,写在纸上。通过看,广泛的开卷,你毕竟能找到确切的相知,与他们通过这种文字的章程交谈,会于您带来安心感与可,进而带动你走有担忧与盲目。

图片 6

小情绪之二:坑爹的挫败感

【7】accession to 正式加入

人对自我的咀嚼还是建于往来既有的经验和别人对您的主观评价之上。

图片 7

随:你14岁的下到了同浅歌唱比赛,差点没拿狼招来,那尔当时辈子可能都选择不再举起麦克风,用我们现在之话语称就是满心留下了坑。

If, like this newspaper, you believe that politics should be based on
evidence, this is worrying. Strong democracies can draw on【8】
inbuilt defences against post-truth. Authoritarian countries are more
vulnerable.

重新以:你24年度之上打算从同样桩和自己专业免极端相关的干活,如果这时,身边十单人口里来六私房报告您说:不不不,你连无相符,那若可能就辈子都不见面传染指好世界了。

【8】draw on 利用,依赖

不过谜底是安的吧?事实是:你也许发充分高之嘉天赋,之所以第一潮到比赛失败了,仅仅是坐您刚好处在变声期;你重新有或坏符合做那份临时羁押起很陌生的劳作,但四周人之评报告您大,你不怕真觉得生,很可能是盖您的调研范围还不够广,如果您望100只征求意见,也许会生86独人口犹支持而的。

图片 8

口如在树本身认知的时段起友好的来回印象中及他人之褒贬里查获到“挫败感”,就会很容易跳进一个恶性循环。假如我首先篇文章没有写好,同时读者们把我骂的狗血淋头,我就是会见报告自己自己“哎呀,看来我真正蛮”,带在这种心情,即便我坚决超强,再接着写一首,那下一样篇自要会写残的,因为自身充满脑子都是负面情绪,以此循环,越告诉自己十分,越做不好下同样件事,结果就是真的成了要命。

Lord of the lies

That politicians sometimes peddle lies is not news: think of Ronald
Reagan’s fib【9】 that his administration had not traded weapons
with Iran in order to secure the release of hostages and to fund the
efforts of rebels in Nicaragua. Dictators and democrats seeking to
deflect blame for their own incompetence have always manipulated the
truth; sore losers have always accused the other lot of lying.

故,NBA的同样员篮球训练于历次赛后本着球员做总结的当儿,都设优先唤醒大家一致句:赢球了不意味什么还是对之,同样,输球了吗无代表什么还是错的。

【9】fib 无关紧要的小慌

带在这么同样栽客观冷静的自身剖析态度,人之心气就会见积极平稳很多,自我的进化吗会放出双重多的可能性。

图片 9

小情绪之三:令人抓捕狂的自尊心

But post-truth politics is more than just an invention of
whingeing【10】 elites who have been outflanked【11】. The
term picks out the heart of what is new: that truth is not
falsified【12】, or contested, but of secondary importance.
Once, the purpose of political lying was to create a false view of the
world. The lies of men like Mr Trump do not work like that. They are
not intended to convince the elites, whom their target voters neither
trust nor like, but to reinforce prejudices.

自身当心理学研究案例中视了如此一个故事:一个女和暗恋很遥远之男儿去幽会,姑娘生尊重这次会,提前采购了项新裙子,画了深悠久的头面,结果,在和男人共上晚餐十分钟不到,男士就起身离开了。

【10】whinge about sb/sth 抱怨某人/某事(英国白、澳大利亚俚语]=
whine)

幼女随即懵了眼,她被同样各项如好之闺蜜打电话,问为何会冒出如此的情景。结果电话那头的闺蜜对它们说:你啊不落泡尿照照自己,你看您那胖,长得而那么挫,是私房就是未可能好上您,我只要你自我早已去好了。

图片 10

闺蜜的讲话听起来吧太残忍了吧?!这哪是一个闺蜜能说称的口舌啊,没错,上面就段恶语相加,并无是闺蜜的当,那个姑娘压根就没有打过电话,这些还是它们以今后回首时,自己说于自己放的。

【11】outflank
占上风(这个词由前缀out-和flank组成,out-表示过、胜过,flank是边的意,所以outflank的原意是侧翼包抄)

我们许多人在生活中都见面发生这么“有趣”的行,那就是是咱最好好“活在过去”,当我们以及食指有矛盾摩擦,当我们相遇相同码好处理的并无是死乐意的行,当我们碰壁或者是遭受回绝,我们在就都非会见咋样,但我们特别喜欢在后来回忆,回想当时协调之规范,对方的范,并不止向中添油加醋,不断反思原因,也不绝于耳地拿过去折腾自己。

图片 11

为何咱们经常说:恶语伤人六月小?因为各个一个令人不如意的反馈都非是秋的刺痛,而会化作埋进你皮肤以及脑海里之一律开长效毒箭,它浸发作,你各个回想一浅毒性就增大一番,最后你总会得出这样的下结论:靠,当时本人岂那么不堪,对方怎么好那样践踏我的尊严。

【12】falsified 篡改,伪造,名词形式吗falsification;false
错误的,虚假的;falsehood 虚假性,谬误,谎言

咱俩为何老是要放人劝要活在马上也?不仅仅是以沉浸在未来之胡思乱想中见面误掉你今天的可贵时间,同时,当你沉浸在追思里常,你对本身的感知和他人的判定也会日益蒸发偏,好事你切莫见面记太漫长,坏事你见面记一辈子,你越来越不断回顾,就会见愈发自卑,越偏激,一个总人口只要拍卖不好过去,那是绝非道可以体会本与迎候未来的。

图片 12

就此,过去的从就是无须再次刻意去记着了,也不用总去想,你记否不见得记得准,想也不至于想得连,与那个被协调一个含糊的答案,并纠结到底信哪个说法,莫不如省下立刻点时,好好去开下一样道题。

Feelings, not facts, are what matter in this sort of campaigning.
Their opponents’ disbelief validates the us-versus-them mindset that
outsider candidates thrive on【13】. And if your opponents focus
on trying to show your facts are wrong, they have to fight on the
ground you have chosen. The more Remain campaigners【14】
attacked the Leave campaign’s【15】 exaggerated claim that EU
membership cost Britain £350m ($468m) a week, the longer they kept the
magnitude of those costs in the spotlight.

今让大家罗列的就三种植多少心思,分别对应一个丁的健康、个人发展同人际交往,希望对大家所有帮助。当我们能够增加自己、消解孤独,对自来成立的评头品足暨建设性的设计、不纠于过去,过好马上之各国一样龙,我们的活品质就会大幅升级,内心世界也会见充满阳光。

【13】thrive on sth 因某事而起变为


图片 13

都出版图书:《为汝私人订制的郁闷药方》。新浪微博:@韩大爷的小商品铺

【14】Remain campaigners留欧派;Remain campaign支持留欧的运动;Remain
camp留欧阵营

出版、书评、约稿、转载、开白等商务合作事务要简信联系自身的商bingo_。

【15】Leave campaigner 脱欧派;Leave campaign支持脱欧的倒;Leave
camp脱欧阵营

Post-truth politics has many parents. Some are noble. The questioning
of institutions and received wisdom【16】 is a democratic
virtue. A sceptical lack of deference towards leaders is the first
step to reform. 

【16】received wisdom 普遍看法

图片 14

But corrosive forces are also at play【17】. One is anger. Many
voters feel let down and left behind, while the elites who are in
charge have thrived. They are scornful of the self-serving
technocrats【18】 who said that the euro would improve their
lives and that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass
destruction【19】
. Popular trust in expert opinion and established
institutions has tumbled across Western democracies.

【17】be at play 起作用,产生震慑

图片 15

【18】technocrat
技术官,技术专家官员(这个词由前缀techno-和后缀-crat组成,techno-意思是技术之,-crat或-ocrat意思是官府)

图片 16

【19】weapons of mass destruction 大规模杀伤性武器

Post-truth has also been abetted by the evolution of the media (see
Briefing). The fragmentation of news sources has created an atomised
world in which lies, rumour and gossip spread with alarming speed.
Lies that are widely shared online within a network, whose members
trust each other more than they trust any mainstream-media source, can
quickly take on the appearance of truth. Presented with evidence that
contradicts a belief that is dearly held, people have a tendency to
ditch the facts first. Well-intentioned journalistic practices bear
blame too. The pursuit of “fairness” in reporting often creates
phoney【20】 balance at the expense of truth. NASA scientist
says Mars is probably uninhabited; Professor Snooks says it is teeming
with aliens. It’s really a matter of opinion.

【20】phoney 虚假的;也只是作名词,意为骗子

图片 17

When politics is like pro-wrestling【21】, society pays the
cost. Mr Trump’s insistence that Mr Obama founded IS precludes a
serious debate over how to deal with violent extremists. Policy is
complicated, yet post-truth politics damns complexity as the
sleight of hand【22】 experts use to bamboozle【23】
everyone else. Hence Hillary Clinton’s proposals on paid parental
leave【24】
go unexamined (see article) and the case for trade
liberalisation is drowned out【25】 by “common sense” demands
for protection.

【21】pro-wrestling
职业摔跤(词被pro的意是饭碗的);其它类似词语,如pro basketball
职业篮球

【22】sleight of hand 手腕,花招

图片 18

【23】bamboozle 欺骗,愚弄;名词为bamboozlement

图片 19

【24】paid parental leave 带薪产假

【25】drown out 淹没

图片 20

It is tempting to think that, when policies sold on dodgy
prospectuses【26】
start to fail, lied-to supporters might see the
error of their ways. The worst part of post-truth politics, though, is
that this self-correction cannot be relied on. When lies make the
political system dysfunctional, its poor results can feed the
alienation and lack of trust in institutions that make the post-truth
play possible in the first place.

【26】prospectus
本意是(学校的)简介、简章,(企业之)招股章程、募股章程,这里dodgy
prospectuses是借助包含欺骗性的扬

图片 21

Pro-truthers stand and be counted

To counter this, mainstream politicians need to find a language of
rebuttal (being called “pro-truth” might be a start). Humility and the
acknowledgment of past hubris【27】 would help. The truth has
powerful forces on its side. Any politician who makes contradictory
promises to different audiences will soon be exposed on Facebook or
YouTube. If an official lies about attending a particular meeting or
seeking a campaign donation, a trail of e-mails may catch him
out【28】
.

【27】hubris 狂妄

图片 22

【28】catch sb out 识破(错误)

图片 23

Democracies have institutions to help, too. Independent legal systems
have mechanisms to establish truth (indeed, Melania Trump has turned
to the law to *seek redress for**【29】*** lies about her past).
So, in their way, do the independent bodies created to inform
policy—especially those that draw on science.

【29】 redress 矫正,补偿;seek redress for 讨回公道,要求赔偿损失

图片 24

If Mr Trump loses in November, post-truth will seem less menacing,
though he has been too successful for it to go away. The deeper worry
is for countries like Russia and Turkey, where autocrats use the
techniques of post-truth to silence opponents. Cast adrift【30】
on an ocean of lies, the people there will have nothing to cling to.
For them the novelty of post-truth may lead back to old-fashioned
oppression.

【30】Cast adrift 漂流

图片 25

【小结】

晚精神政治(post-truth politics)来源于David
Roberts在2010年Grist专栏中的一样篇稿子,在2016年美国统选举与2016年英国脱欧公投中流行起来。Trump是弥天大谎之君(lord
of the
lies
),后精神政治的棋手(exponent)。他的谈话以及事实相去好远(estranged
from
fact
)。其可耻不但没丁惩处,反而被视为对精英势力的御(stand
up to elite
power
)。然而,Trump并非孤章。土耳其政客声称在近年来破产的政变(bungled
coup
)中,犯罪者(perpetrator)是奉CIA之命行事。在英国脱欧运动(Brexit)中,留欧派(Remain
campaigners
)与解除欧派(Leave
campaigners
)相博弈,人们轻信土耳其用参加欧盟(accession to the
union
)产生大量移民。政客谎言已经休是新闻。里到底管曾经洒了小谎(fib),称并未跟伊朗拓展武器贸易,以管教释放人质并资助尼加拉瓜的背叛势力。然而,后精神政治不是同一众牢骚满腹(whingeing)的挫败(outflanked)精英们杜撰出来的,而是映射了一个新的为主问题:真相没有受篡改(falsified)或质疑,而是显示不那么要了。比如,Trump的弥天大谎不是以说服精英,而是为强化偏见。后精神政治存在积极的一头。对现有体制及周边信念(received
wisdom
)的质问是民主的充分体现。但腐蚀的力量为会见出震慑(at
play
)。当天才阶层蒸蒸日上(thrive),选民也感觉失落、愤怒,他们鄙视那些使用(draw
on
)科学手段也政策服务的艺官(technocrat),也无相信主流媒体。为了追求“公平”,报道备受常牺牲精神以达到虚假(phoney)的抵。当政治成为同会职业摔跤比赛(pro-wrestling),需要全社会来埋单。一些大家以政治之复杂,耍弄花招(sleight
of hand
)来愚弄(bamboozle)民众。所以,希拉里提出的带薪产假(paid
parental
leave
)最终流产,自由贸易提案也吃交易保护需要的“常识”淹没(drowned
out
)。如果冲欺骗性宣传(dodgy
prospectuses
)的国策最终失败,被骗的维护者可能恍然大悟。但这种自己修正的企图并无保险。当谎言导致政治体系功能失调,就会见招疏远感和非相信。为是,主流政治家需要保持谦虚,承认自己过去的张扬(hubris)。如果有政客对不同听众作出相互矛盾的承诺,很快就会当Facebook或YouTube遭到曝光。如果某位官员谎称到某会议或筹备竞选募捐(campaign
donation
),就会有人对其邮件进行追踪,最终识破谎言(catch him
out
)。在单独的法网系统中,可以使真相挖掘机制来对抗谎言,讨回公道(seek
redress for
lies
)。如果Trump在十一月份战败,后精神政治或者移得不那么甚嚣尘上。但还令人担忧的是俄国及土耳其,这简单单国的政客利用后精神手段迫使对方默不失声。漂流(cast
drift
)在谎言之大洋遭到,人们以任所依。新兴的后精神政治或者用人们拉掉了很被压迫的时。

* 注:本文就供就学交流的故,不代表作者观点。